Subaltern Urbanisation in India: An Introduction
to the Dynamics of Ordinary Town reviewed by Gregory F Randolph (University of Southern California) and Mukta Naik (IHS, Erasmus University Rotterdam) in Urban Studies 1–3 – 2018.
While half the world’s city dwellers reside in small and medium-sized towns (United Nations, 2018), the urban social sciences remain stubbornly focused on the planet’s largest metropolitan areas. Among those studying the North, the global cities literature (Sassen, 2005, 2013) has re-energised the long-standing focus on cities such as London, New York and Paris. Neither has scholarship on the urban South, despite its critiques of urban theories emanating from Northern cities, turned its imagination much
beyond major metropolitan areas. The implicit assumption seems to be that megacities are representative samples of the massive
urban transformation underway across much of the world. The neglect of cities at the other end of the settlement size spectrum is not simply a failure of the academy to study the full universe of urban phenomena. As the evidence in this volume begins to demonstrate, it is actually a failure to grapple with one of the central forces underlying the rapid urbanisation unfolding in the
Global South: widespread rural-to-urban in situ transformations are resulting in the proliferation of small urban settlements.
Book Review SUBURBIN Environment & Urb ASIA – 2018
By Khaliq Parkar
Environment & Urbanisation ASIA – 2018 – n°9/1, pp. 107-110
By Manisha Jain and Artem Korzhenevych in Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie (2018).
India’s increased pace of urbanisation is evident, but the question
remains as to whether India can harness its developmental potential by
providing social infrastructure to meet its projected growth. This paper
investigates the urbanisation trajectory with respect to the provision
of social infrastructure in the Capital Region of India. First, it
applies the differential urbanisation model and predicts
counter‐urbanisation to be the next stage of development. Second, using
socio‐economic indicators, the paper finds high literacy rates and
non‐agricultural employment in small towns. Third, it explains
deconcentration of large cities as an outcome of congested social
infrastructure provision. Fourth, it determines that small towns
continue to have poor provision of social infrastructure. This paper
recommends the integration of spatial planning with social
infrastructure planning, the empowerment of lower‐tier authorities for
social infrastructure delivery, and measures for raising local
government revenue in the region and in similar regions throughout the
by Niti Mehta
Sardar Patel Institute of Economic and Social Research, Ahmedabad, India – 2018 – Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore
The book examines the pattern of non-farm development at the national level and identifies the correlates and determinants of occupational diversification for the major states. It is one of the few studies that unravels the dynamic processes associated with growth and development at the sub-national level; wherein it elucidates changes in rural employment pattern and its implications for urban growth.
The book fills a crucial gap in current research, notably, an understanding of conditions that enable large villages to assume an urban character. By providing micro-level study of census towns to capture the nuances of the dynamic situation in the countryside, the book would offer useful insights and provide reference material on the social and economic impacts of urban growth, thereby satisfying the needs of students, researchers and practitioners of regional economics, rural development, and sustainable urbanization.
The book is the outcome of financial support received under the Research Programme Scheme of the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR), New Delhi, India.
Shamindra Nath Roy, Kanhu Charan Pradhan
EPW- Review of Urban Affairs, Vol. 53, Issue No. 49, 15 Dec, 2018
The 2011 Census highlighted the enormous growth of census towns, which
contributed more than one-third of the urban growth during 2001–11.
Since the rural–urban identification process in India is ex ante,
using past census data, the number of CTs that will be identified in
2019 for the 2021 Census are estimated. The present study finds that the
importance of CTs will be maintained in the urban structure, and a
significant share of urban population will continue to grow beyond
municipal limits. The influence of large towns on the growth of CTs will
be persistent in the future, but a more localised form of urbanisation
is also evident where the effect of agglomeration is less. Such a
pattern may be stable because these places are relatively more
prosperous than their rural counterparts.
Saurav Chakraborty, Subhanil Chowdhury, Utpal Roy, Kakoli Das
Vol. 52, Issue No. 25-26, 24 Jun, 2017, EPW, Review of Rural Affairs
Eighty-one new census towns in West Bengal are on the verge of
declassification in the 2021 Census. This must not be understood to mean
that non-farm workers are moving into farm activities. Rather,
evidences suggest that growth of farm employment has simply outpaced
that of non-farm employment in these new census towns and is possibly
the reason behind their imminent declassification. The case of Patuli,
which is only considered as an example, shows that non-farm activities,
especially trading, are witnessing a fall-off phase and that it failed
to expand owing to the loss of its market town/rural service centre
character over time, goaded by some local factors. This has led to the
subsequent inability to generate sufficient full-time jobs at Patuli.
More studies are required to build a comprehensive outlook on the policy
measures required to preserve the role of these new census towns as
market towns and/or rural service centres in the future.
PART 4 OF A SERIES OF INTERPRETATIONS DRAWING ON A NEW BOOK ON SMALL TOWNS
In this interview, Eric Denis, Director of Research at Géographie-cités lab, CNRS, Paris, discusses some of the varied processes characterising small town economics. What kind of economic processes do we see emerging in small towns? We can summarise the multiple and complex economic processes playing out in small towns into four broad types. Locally, these four ideal-types are interlaced with each other: Small towns are incorporated into metropolitan and large cities, Small towns are entrepreneurial, resilient and innovative localities, Small towns are ordinary market towns, Small towns are large villages that expand and grow including a work-force moving away from the farm sector.
Professor & Director, Centre for Urban Economic Studies Department of Economics, Calcutta University
IASSI-Quarterly, 2017, Volume : 35, Issue : 3-4: 353-370
West Bengal, among the major states, was fourth in rank at the time of Independence, slid down to 7 in 2001. It has been above the all-India average through-out in level of urbanisation but the rate slowed down. There are reasons behind the loss of the pace of urbanisation in the state. Firstly, the partition of the country robbed away the urban hierarchy of the state, along with the economic forces behind urbanisation. The rate of urbanisation was slow and most of the new towns emerged around Kolkata or in the Durgapur-Asansol region. Primacy of the city of Kolkata was the most notable feature of urbanisation of the state. Most of the other Class I towns were also in the Kolkata Metropolitan Area. Inter-district disparities in level and pace of urbanisation showed the same trend over the decades. The districts in northern and western parts were least urbanised. The winds of change came in the eighties when the Left front Government went for land reform along with recording the names of the share-croppers. This led to a spurt in agricultural production especially paddy. On the urban front, conscious policy decisions for the development of non-metro towns and regular elections in the local self-government institutions (both urban and rural) also yielded some positive results towards balanced urbanisation. The primacy of Kolkata started to decline and the growth of urban population was more spatially spread. However, the results of 2011 census came almost as a surprise. At the national level, the rate of growth of urban population surpassed that of the rural and West Bengal, the growth rate jumped to 14%. Secondly, of the 2500+ new census towns of the country, West Bengal tops the list with about 582 new towns. Now, researches are going on to find out the reasons behind this change. This paper will look into the small and medium towns of West Bengal and discuss the issues of urban governance and planning for these towns.
de Bercegol, R., & Gowda, S.
Urbanisation in India is usually perceived as the problem of huge metropolises. The focus of this paper is on small conurbations in which specific urban dynamics emerge and contribute also to the current urban transformations. One of them, Kartarpur, is a small cluster-city of craft woodworkers. It shows both the dynamism and the fragility of this non-metropolitan urbanisation. The remarkable expansion of a small furniture industry is linked with endogenous factors rooted in a specific territory, far away from metropolitan development schemes. The analysis shows how a territorial cluster of local craftsmen, putting together their traditional know-how, allowed the creation of a real added-value which is upset by current neo-liberal evolutions.
Environment and Urbanization Asia – 8(1) 105–119, 2017
Internal migration is a major driving force for urbanization all over the world and is of concern in Asia due to its rising magnitude. Most studies on internal migration focus on the migrant in the process of migration and a large majority of studies are interested in understanding the conditions of the migrant at the destination for policy concerns. This article makes a case for studying the source of migration and the role that circular migration plays in processes of urbanization at the source of migration. This is particularly important in the context of the growing urbanization away from cities in India. Using the case of a dry land village in northeastern Karnataka, this article attempts to understand the role that circular migration for construction work to cities has in the process of localized urbanization in the village.
School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi
Draft paper to download
SHAMA PRASAD MUKHERJEE NATIONAL RURBAN MISSION is not a old wine in a new bottle, if one looks at it deeply. For the first time in India, a spatial planning strategy has been introduced in Rural Development Model with land use and convergence of various programmes and activities. If implemented with earnest interest, this Mission will be a game changer for the country. Lesser time for planning and lesser emphasis on people’s participation may challenge mission’s success than achieving desired integration and convergence. Capacity needs to be built at various levels so as to make this landmark programme a successful one.
By Neha Pranav Kolh & Krishna Kumar Dhote
Procedia Technology, Volume 24, 2016, Pages 1699–1705
Abstract: In recent years urbanization has become synonym to development. Developing countries like India has experienced huge shift in the economy from agrarian base to service oriented employment. Indian cities unlike the western are not planned; they evolve in layers as a testimony to different period. The settlement may be organic, with heterogeneity yet very well reflects the interwoven social fabric. As a result of urbanization the urban sprawl is approaching the rural hinterlands. The line of distinction is fading away between urban and rural. A new type of settlement is emerging which once termed as conurbation by the Scottish planner Patrick Geddes. The area with diffusion of urban and rural activities is termed as RURBAN. These rurban centres are new emerging towns that are governed by rural local bodies, the activities possess in these areas are urban in nature. The paper attempts to develop a understanding of issues and challenges, possibilities and potential and development guidelines for this upcoming new centres of urban growth.